Language Reclamation (2001)

Language Reclamation poster

Poster: Gina Brooks 2002


My practice in a workshop is to create \a report after each day. It is mostly subjective, and gives me a record and insights into how the work unfolded. It is one of these reports that I am sharing with you. The report is reprinted with the permission of the organizers of the workshop, and edited for clarity. My understanding with them is that confidentiality will be respected and so all names of participants have been either deleted or changed.

Organizers: Gail Sockabasin, Vera Francis
Sponsor: Wabanaki Centre at U of Maine with support from the Rockefeller Foundation
Focus: Language Reclamation
Joker: David Diamond
Dates: April 16 - 21, 2001
Participants: 16
Venue(s): Wabanaki Centre workshop room
April 20 - about 70 at the Pleasant Point School
April 21 - about 35 at the Indian Township Church


April 16, 2001

Point and turn
Find the spot
Lead the blind
Energy clap
Blind cars
Blind magnets
Complete the image
Sculpting partners
Groups of 4
Group yell

A year ago almost to the day I came here for the first time to do a workshop just like this except on issues of language loss. Gail and Vera used the insights from the workshop and other work they are doing on the issue and put in a proposal into the Rockefeller Foundation for a three year process, partly using the THEATRE FOR LIVING work, to look at issues of language reclamation. I am scheduled to be here three or four times in the three years.

The journey is an interesting one. Last year we focussed on "language loss". This led to very strong plays, one of which, understandably and validly, looked at historical issues of mission schools. This year we have agreed to move forward and change the focus to "language reclamation". We all think that this will root the exploration more in the present this time and also focus more on actions that will move the work on the issue forward.

Six of the sixteen people in the group (there is one man) are participants from last year. This means that both on an issue level and people level there is an interesting continuity. The group also ranges from a 9 year old to women in their 60's or 70's.

There were some surprises for me: I thought we had agreed to a seven day process with performances on the sixth and seventh nights. This was changed to performances on nights five and six. I also assumed, wrongly, that we had seven hour days, but in order to deal with the difficulty of people's schedules, they were told we were working 9 - 3, which, with an hour for lunch, is 5 hours of work time. I have asked to extend the day by one hour, being concerned that we just don't have enough time - the group agreed today.

We had a great day. Engagement was high - Vera and Gail did a good organizing job. There is strong commitment in the room and a hunger. Evidently, some of the participants work in family violence counseling and they want to take the techniques into that work. This is great.

We have discussed (I am finding this is happening more and more) staying away from the language of "oppressor" and "oppressed". The feeling is that this polarizes the issues. I am going to play around with language and ask the participants to offer moments about "being blocked" - a moment in your life where you encountered a blockage, either from something inside you or outside you, that stopped you in your desire to reclaim the language.

The issue of the language used in the workshop is of special interest in this project about language. One of the reasons for the request, I think, is that here in North America the word "oppressed" has a different meaning than it does in Brazil, where this work originates. When people hear "oppressed" here, they think "victim". Theatre of the Victim. In Brazil, Theatre of the Oppressed is about Theatre of the Resistance. Fighting back. The educational process of changing the definition of the word is just too great, though, and so more and more I am trying to find other language that fits the circumstance of the moment.

We made it half way through the groups in the Groups of 4 exercise and have had very deep Image work already. One of them affected the room very strongly: an Image of a woman (an elder? a child?) on the floor, cross-legged, holding her hands over her ears.above her is a woman pointing and accusing/blaming/yelling at her and off to the side is a man (who made the image) dismissing or judging her. I asked if anyone in the group could make an "Ideal Image" from this image. Someone did - an image where both people came to the woman on the floor and listened and tried to help. On activation of the image, though, when I asked them to be true to their characters, the woman on the floor didn't stay on the floor and the two others, instead of going to her, turned and both went off in different directions, leaving her alone. Many in the room had tears in their eyes.

In conversation they mentioned how this simple moment IS the community. Everyone knows the problems, knows that help is needed, even WHAT is neededbut people just walk the other way, feeling too tired, too alienated, that it is all too late..

We left this up in the air at the end of the day. I want to finish the other two groups tomorrow.

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April 17, 2001

Fill the empty space
Clap exchange
Effective hand
Glass bottle
Electric current
Finish groups of 4
Magnetic image

This was a very strong day, with some rough spots. We started 30 minutes latepeople wandering in - also down to 12 participants. The ones who didn't come back mentioned yesterday that they probably would be unable to return, including the only man.

The group had a very, very hard time doing clap exchange. It was impossible to even send a clap around the circle and have it be in a steady rhythm. This is really unusual in my experience. We talked about this at lunch and some think it has to do with the community having lost its connection to listening with their ears - lots of talk about how people listen visually - always checking things out by the expression on people's faces, body language etc. not being able to trust what people say. What does this mean to reclaiming Passamaquoddy as a language?

The Groups of 4 images continued to be very strong. In one of them there was a woman pointing at, berating a woman who was on the floor, looking ashamed. Behind the pointing woman was another character, spurring her on. Everyone in the room (except 2 people) joined the woman on the floor. When we activated this the shame, anger, self-loathing over not being able to speak the language started to pour out. On further activation, we went into an improvisation that led to a discovery that one of the characters who is trying to force the woman on the floor to speak Passamaquoddy, feels oppressed herself, although many of the others in the room see her as an oppressor.

The Magnetic Image exercise has so far led to two strong Images. We have one more to look at tomorrow. In one, two people are forcing their feet onto the back of another, who is folding into the floor, but also fighting back. Under her is someone trying to hold her up and also, at the same time, protect a flower from being trampled. This was a beautifully symbolic Image that also led to lots of tears. It was a very emotional day.

The images have shed light on the oppression that the very people who are trying to save the language are inadvertently creating in the community. There is a great urgency and because of this the pressure that they are exerting is tremendous. Many people also talked about seeing through the images that "talk is easy" and that it is time to stop talking and take action. Also, in the final circle, lots of tears about parents, grandparents..ways to forgive them for their decisions not to teach the language.the only way to "make it" was to learn English, to the exclusion of Passamaquoddy.

We are going to make the plays tomorrow afternoon. I feel like there is potentially enough material and it would be great to have an extra day of rehearsal. The more confident the cast feel with their characters the better they will be able to handle the Forum.

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April 18, 2001

Glass cobra
The intestine
Energy clap
Song of the Mermaid

It has been blizzarding here all day! In mid-April!

Its such a terrific group. We played, laughed huge amounts and they all, each and every one shed tears today and then they made really strong plays. The plays are rough and will get worked tomorrow so I am going to detail what they are about after that work.

Tomorrow video cameras are going to start documenting the whole rest of the process. I think this might have been better if it had started right away. I fear that they are going to be disruptive coming in at this point. I am going to meet with the crew to lay some ground rules about how they need to be invisible. This is so that the participants, who are in a vulnerable place, don't get intimidated and shut down just when we are going into rehearsal. Better if the cameras had been there from the very beginning.

In Song of the Mermaid, because of the size of the group, I selected only two sounds. The entire room went to one sound, which was a very silent, almost invisible, short, interrupted series of fast a stifled cry. The sound was all about shame and guilt and being silenced. In their circles after the exercise they had very emotional conversations about how the elder generation, in trying to protect the younger ones from the oppression they received because of the language, cut them off from the language and have replicated the same oppression they wanted to avoid - and now time is running out. If they don't act now Passamaquoddy is going to disappear. Their dilemma, partly, is that in order to work through the issues they have to deal with being labeled disrespectful to the very Elders they want/need to learn the language from.

We worked an Image today about this where a woman is prying an Elder's hands off the Elders earsthe Elder not wanting to hear what she has to say. One hand is on the Elder's arm, the other stretched out as if to strike. Changing the position of the striking hand so that the palm is upward instead of facing the Elder changes the image profoundly, making it possible for the Elder to not be threatened, and give the woman what she wants/needs. How do they accomplish this symbolic change in real life? This question, I think, is being asked in the plays.

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April 19, 2001

Leader of the orchestra
The plate
Forum rehearsal

This was a terrific day, although it didn't go as planned.

I worked with play #1 while #2 went into another room for 11/2 hours to work on their own. We had a great time.

Three sisters: Nora (oldest) Karen (middle) and Linda (youngest) are in what used to be their mother's home, but is now Linda's home, for Easter Dinner. Present also are Mary, Linda's youngest daughter (19) and Doreen, Mary's cousin (19) from the nearby city. Gramma is in a home. Nora, the eldest, is the only daughter who speaks Passamaquoddy .

They have all just eaten too much. Linda and Nora get busy clearing the table. Linda tells them they have to hurry up, they are all going to visit Gramma. What? Says Noraits Easter Sunday, she's waiting for us, says Linda. Get moving, Mary, says her mom (Linda). I don't want to go, says Mary. Everything stops.

Are we going to have to get into this again.asks Linda. Doreen starts trying to get Mary to leave with her - they have a party to go to and Doreen REALLY doesn't want to go see Gramma. Mary starts to explain that Gramma makes her feel bad - although Gramma can speak English, she prefers to speak Passamaquoddy, regardless of who understands and who doesn't.

A confrontation starts between Linda and her daughter, obviously not for the first time. Its hard for all of us, says Linda, why do you always try to put that guilt on ME - Gramma used to speak Passamaquoddy to you when you were a kid, you should have paid attention. She wants to see you - I promised her you would comeetc.Mary is torn - she loves Gramma but doesn't want to feel stupid and ashamed like she always does, and in her old age, Gramma won't/can't speak English anymore.

Karen is lobbying to just let the kids go - she doesn't want to see this fight explode again. Doreen gives Mary an ultimatum - either she goes with her to the party or she will go alone - she'll wait in the front yard. She leaves. Linda tells her daughter that time is running out, Gramma is sick and won't be around forever. She has to come with them. Mary hesitates, but follows her cousin.

A fight starts between Nora and Linda. Why doesn't Linda ever TALK with her daughter? Why does she always have to give her orders? Linda won't have this conversation and insists they leave now, without Mary to visit their mother. Nora says she is not going to let her sister boss her around the way she bosses her daughter around. Fine, says Linda, calls Karen to leave. They do. Nora watches after them, groans, and follows them out.

The three of them enter Gramma's room. She is very excited to see Linda, her youngest. They hug and kiss. Linda tells her Karen has come and she hugs and kisses Karen. Even Nora is here, says Linda, and Gramma lets Nora hug and kiss her but does not reciprocate.

Where is Mary, asks Gramma. You promised you would bring her. Linda starts to explain that she is busy. Nora interrupts and tells her sister to tell her Mom the truth. You tell her, says LindaYOU tell her, says Nora..What??? Gramma wants to know?

Nothing, Mom.interrupts Karen. Never mind. They stand in silence for a while, no one wanting to deal with the issue.

On the surface this play seems quite simple but there is lots of complexity under it and the women are playing it with tremendous emotion. It is very real for them.

At lunch we got news from one of the other women in play #2 that her son had broken his hand and she was on her way to the hospital. She is the central character in this play, that they had been working on together all morning. We decided not to replace her, but to trust that she is going to be able to be there tomorrow.

This afternoon we rehearsed Forum on play #1 - it was amazing and they dealt with interventions really well. The plan is that tomorrow, not having to do any work on #1, we can to all we need to do on #2.

The final circle today was really emotional. They are very impressed with themselves and each other regarding the work on the first play. They really "get it". A few of them have transformed before our very eyes - taking charge of their characters performing the plays so truthfully.

For me, if someone does something in an Image, once, it has nothing to do with acting. But when a person takes on a role and has to do the same thing over and over again, hit a mark, get a cue, reach an emotional place - this is a performance. They become an actor in this moment and becoming an actor on the community stage leads to acting in a different way in the community. This is the essence of community development.

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April 20, 2001

Boy, this was a really hard, long day, even though we didn't start until 1PM!

We met at the school as planned to work the other play. When they showed me what they had, I was shocked. There was nothing there! The play they had made after Song of the Mermaid had been rough, but it was very powerful. Working it yesterday morning, before the woman had to go to the hospital, it turns out they had slowly removed all the dramatic tension, all the conflict. We started, basically, from the beginning.

I asked them what had been at the heart of the play. Shame and anger. OK. Where is that in this play? The woman who had cast herself as the mother, who is ashamed and angry, doesn't want to get emotional on the stage. I talked with her and asked her if she wanted to play the part. Yes. OK - so if you want to do this you need to agree to do it. I can help you if you want, but I won't force you and I can't do it for you. OK. She wants to. We start to piece the play back together:

The Great-grandparents (Grandma and Grandad) are sitting together in the living room. Auntie is in another room, beating quietly on a drum. Grandad is smoking a pipe and drinking a beer. They speak Passamaquoddy throughout. Grandad wants his wife to drink with him. She doesn't want to. He tells her he doesn't want to feel alone - is she leaving him? No, of course not. Then drink with me. She does.

Lisa arrives home from school (a real 9 year old). She stops and says hi to her grandparents. Grandad hides his beer up his sleeve and whisks the smoke away. He shoos Lisa away, because he doesn't like her to see him drinking.

Lisa goes to her aunt. They talk about school for a bit, about learning Passamaquoddy words. The Aunt has no language. She wants to learn but doesn't want to deal with the grandparents. She asks Lisa how to say a word - Lisa doesn't know, so the Aunt tells her to go ask her Grandparents. Do I have to, she asks? She doesn't want to because they are it for me - if you do, I will teach you something on the drum.Lisa goes.

This time Grandma brings Lisa onto her lap. Grandad tries to kiss her but she pushes him away - he stinks from alcohol and his beard is rough. Grandad complains about this. Mom enters and catches the Great- grandparents speaking Passamaquoddy to her daughter. She has forbidden this. She cannot speak and she doesn't want her daughter to. She yells at them and at Lisa. She pulls Lisa off Grandma's lap, and yells that she has told her not to do that. Lisa yells that she wants to learn Passamaquoddy. Mom spins Lisa around and pushes her, yelling, "I don't care". And sends her to her room, where Auntie is.

At this point in the rehearsal, Mom falls apart. She doesn't want to do the part. It feels too bad. She doesn't like how it feels and can't do it. We don't know what to do - it has taken about 90 minutes out of a possible 2 hour work time to get this far. Thankfully, the woman playing the Aunt offers to switch roles. OK. We do and have to go back to the beginning to rework.

We get to the point where we left off and continue:

Rachel (the mother's mother) comes in from the kitchen, where she has been working all this time. She tries to stop the fight between her daughter and her parents. She is speaking Passamaquoddy. Her daughter yells at her to speak English - she doesn't understand what she is saying. She has to say this a few timesfinally, in English, she explains that Lisa is a last hope and that she HAS to learn the language. Her daughter turns on her. WHY??? YOU didn't think it was important enough to teach ME the language? Why is it important now? The aunt has entered, leaving Lisa crying in her room. The Aunt turns on her sister, Lisa's mother, telling them all to stop fighting, can't they see what they are doing to Lisa, who is crying in her room?..all turn and look there. Silence. End of play.

Because of the cast change it took way too long to work this, and then we had about 50 minutes to work Forum on it. Unlike yesterday, some of the cast (one in particular) just didn't understand and I had to spend a lot of time explaining that not only did she have to stay in character, but she had to be in THIS moment, not just repeat the lines from our play, regardless what the intervener did.

We ran out of time, and had to run the first play in the new space. We only ran it once. I had hoped to have some time to spend on it working it onto this stage, which is a lot narrower the room we created it in.

Anyway, then we broke for dinner, rushed around like crazy and got back at 6:50 for a 7PM show. About 60 people came. And all of it was taped.

The video crew were great, actually. After discussion the workshop group had agreed that it was important to document the process and the two men shooting were very respectful. In the Forum, as I always do, I told the audience that if they wanted to make an intervention and did not want to be taped, that the cameras would be turned off for that time. No one stopped the cameras.

This was a really hard Forum, though. I was surprised by how much I had to cajole the audience. Very different from last year. There was a lot of silence in the room. I have a theory about this: I think these plays, about language reclamation, are a lot harder than the plays we made last year about language loss. They are asking harder questions, articulating the problems that the community really does not want to face. What we experienced tonight was, I think, the reality of the issue.

Having said that, there were also some wonderful interventions. The play explained yesterday went 1st and the one made today went 2nd.

Some highlights: a Passamaquoddy man replaced Mary, the daughter in the first play and agreed to go see Grandma at the home.and had a fight with Doreen over breaking the plans to go out. (This man speaks the language.)

Before leaving, he asked his mother and Aunts, why they hadn't brought Grandma home for Easter dinner.they all ignored the question. When they got to the home he started communicating with Grandma in Passamaquoddy. I reminded him that the character has no language. Everything changed. He had to rely on Aunt Nora, who is not on speaking terms with Grandma..he got more and more quiet and then excused himself, saying he had promised to go out with Doreen..and left. In discussion he said he realized how hard it was and that there had to be something, other than his respect for his grandmother, to keep him there - the others had to help and no one wanted to.

In the second play a very young girl came up - maybe 6 years oldto replace Lisa when her Mom gets mad and pushes her. When it came time to "act" she couldn't do anything - I asked her what she wanted and she told me.that she wants to get away to hide from the violence (my words). So we tried it again, but again she "missed it".this was a wonderful thing, though, I stood with her and explained that I thought that she wanted something, and that was for Lisa to feel safe - yes - she agreed - but that when she got up here into the situation, it was hard and confusing and scary, and she didn't know what to do! She laughed and agreed.and soI asked.what do we DO? This little girl has a desire and it is real and we all understand it..what do we DO???

A man yelled stop and replaced Grandma. He played a lovely scene with Grandad (who is being played by a wonderful woman who was in the workshop last year) where Grandma told her husband that if he didn't stop drinking, after 50 years of marriage, she was going to stop sleeping in the same bed as him. Grandpa thought this was an idle threat. "She" insisted it wasn't. There was laughter for a while but then the room got very, very quiet. Lots of parents and grandparents there.

A man came up and replaced the Aunt, and confronted Mom about her feelings about not speaking the languageand what her anger was doing to Lisa - why was she angry at her daughter??? The loving way that this was done broke though the armor and led to a wonderful scene between the Mom, Lisa and Rachel. In discussion it became apparent and was stated that the power of this was that the "auntie" spoke something hidden and unspeakable, that everyone knew. That keeping the silence was NOT an act of love. Breaking the silence was. This seemed like a very important thing to say to this very, very silent audience tonight.

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April 21, 2001

Another big but amazing day.

We did "Your Wildest Dream" from 11 - 3 today, broke for dinner and then met in Indian Township - a Reserve about an hour from Pleasant Point to do the shows.

This group responded to "Dream" really well. This is a technique I have been developing for about 5 years now - a community visioning tool incorporating Image Theatre and Polaroid photography. In this technique I go back to "oppressor/oppressed" language, because the polarization is exactly what I want to set up at the top of the exercise.

We found the central image of oppression very quickly. Perhaps all the work we have been doing this week helped. And then the image of the dream, although it took longer, also came relatively easily. Telling for this group, and for many, was that the oppression is much easier to define than the dream. We know our collective "here". What does our imagined "there" look like?

Then we started the process of filling in the journey. We took 11 photographs in about 90 minutes and placed them. Lots of this was filled with gut laughter, and some surprises.

One of the photos was a group of faces, hands held to faces like flowers, grins on faces. I commented at the time that it looked like Little Mary Sunshine. When it came time to place this photo three of the group wanted it quite close to the image of oppression. This really surprised the rest of the group, who wanted it at the opposite end. The happiness in the image some saw as "fake"the Native Americans performing happiness so everyone (including themselves) will think its OK. Others saw it as genuine. A profound split in perception of this Image in the group. I suggested, and they agreed that we take another photo of the same Image, and that it be placed in both places, near the oppression and the dream.

When it came time for the group to plot their own stories through the photos, the older members of the group agreed that when they had been children, they had lived in this dream photo - which was the goal of the group. And then everything had changed. (From what I understand this territory escaped the initial invasion of Europeans, the influx went south of this place and it wasn't until about 130 years ago that life here really started to change dramatically - much like in BC.) This meant that there was a cyclical aspect to the photos - that this community is trying to get back to a place that it remembers.

Also - the spaces between the photos were relatively uniform, until we got about two-thirds to the dream, and then big gaps started opening up. We agreed that this corresponded to how they don't know some of the answers, some of the steps that have to happen - there are discoveries to be made about how to get from here to there. They seemed very happy having done this exercise, and I left them with the photos.

We were all nervous about these shows tonight. Last night was hard. We performed in a tiny church, moved the altar etc. out of the way - thankfully this church also had lots of Passamaquoddy imagery and symbols embedded in the Christian motif. It does seem to belong to the community. About 30 people came. This was fine - it is the first time anything like this process has ever happened in this community - this is Gail and Vera really extending the project out - taking a risky but necessary step.

I started the Forum off balance. Nervous. Launched into my explanations of what was about to happen and forgot to ask the group to introduce themselves, as I usually do. One of them had to remind me. In discussion later this seems to have been a bigger thing for me than for them, but, it is "all theatre". What I mean by this is that the audience sees what it sees and the way into the event is important. As an outsider to the community I have to be very careful this way - and have tried to develop rituals - the introductions and presence of the workshop group with me on the stage from the beginning to show the community that the work belongs to them. I feel we started off badly tonight.

However, I also think I found the language for this forum tonight, asking the audience to watch for characters who were "in struggle" - who were trying to achieve something but were being blocked, either by something internally - something inside them, or by something external - another character, and if they had an idea, by how replacing that character who was in struggle, they could move through the blockage, to yell stop this language for this forum has come out of the discussions with Gail and Vera about their sense of the issues in the community. More and more I am trying to adapt the invitation to the audience for each Forum project, but still keep the sense of setting up a scene that contains dramatic tension.

There were only four interventions in the night, but they were wonderful and all went on for some time - the energy difference between last night and tonight was tangible - the cast were more relaxed once we got started and the audience were really engaged, although frightened. The event lasted just short of two hours.

There were some wonderful moments tonight, but one stands out for me. A woman yelled stop and replaced Grandma and talked with her husband who is drinking..trying to get him to see how much he has changed and how his drinking is hurting the family - especially their great-grand daughter who wants to learn the language from them, but can't because she can't get through the alcohol. The wonderful woman who is playing Grandad played the scene with her with such compassion for this old man (her character) - and she spoke (as him) about how nothing is left, no work, no self-worth - why should he stop? All he wants to do is die without having to struggle anymore - don't ask him to change. She showed us Grandad in such a beautiful way, and at the same time, let the new Grandma get to him in some way - so that he had to think about what she was saying. Many were very moved because this was obviously the truth and cut to the heart of the issues we are here to deal with.

Like last night many people stayed after and wanted to talk. One woman, who I think was representative of many in the audience, spoke of how she had wanted to get up on stage but couldn't, because what happens in the plays happens to her - she wanted to yell "stop" but it kept getting stuck, getting blocked in her throat, in the same way that she wants to do something about the real issues but doesn't. We talked about how there are going to be more of these events, run by Gail and Vera, and that this was the first time and maybe the next time or the next they will be able to use the event as a rehearsal for really dealing with the issues in their lives.

There were some youth there and after, they gathered and Vera had a talk with them, and although none had intervened, they were very excited and were asking her about how they could get involved. This is great news.

I have seen something this week. The vision that Gail and Vera have on this project is immense and really revolutionary - they can see it and they are looking far ahead. This group was wonderful and, although, of course, the work is hard and exhausting, it has also been a privilege to be doing it with them.

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April 22, 2001


Gail and Vera and I had a good breakfast meeting this morning before I left. The discussion was far-ranging - reflecting on this week and also the workshop last year, strategies for the future.

I mentioned to them that something I was seeing here was the possibility of a core group forming that would leave the rest of the community behind, and thought this was something to guard against. We made plays about language loss last year and "met" the community at the level that many are at regarding the issue. This week we made plays about what seems to be the next level.looking at issues of language reclamation - but most of the people who came to the plays weren't at the plays last year. They haven't done any of the work on the issues that the core group that is forming have done. We gave them the next question, but hadn't asked the first one yet. I think this is one of the factors in their silence in the Forums.

As we were talking about this a different way to approach this project surfaced: Maybe there is a different way to think about using me. The plan HAD been for me to come back in September to do what we had done here again, maybe with a new focus. We have agreed not to do this. Instead, they are going to try to send a couple of the people who have done a workshop so far into the level 1 training in Vancouver in August, and Vera into the level 2. She took the level 1 last year. Then, in September (or August if possible), I am going to come and do a level 1 training session here, with people who want to learn this work.

Groups of those people will then go out into the community in pairs for about 6 months and do short workshops, 1 - 2 day sessions, on language issues. Then, after this has taken off, I will come back and create plays with them again for public Forum. In this way we will start to develop the skills in the community and also develop the audience for the Forums, who can come into the process already having used this theatre language to work on the issues.

Eventually - and it shouldn't take long, really, there will be a core group here who is confident enough with the techniques to do it all on their own. I have changed the character names so that people in the workshop are not identifiable.